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hekate:visual_rules_process_modeling [2019/06/27 15:49] (current)
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 +~~SLIDESHOW~~
 +~~ODT~~
 +
 +
 +====== Visual Business Rules and Process Modeling ======
 +
 +Krzysztof Kluza <​kluza@agh.edu.pl>,​ Grzegorz J. Nalepa <​gjn@agh.edu.pl>​
 +
 +\\ \\ \\
 +
 +===== Outline =====
 +
 +  * Intro
 +  * Basics
 +    * UML
 +    * MOF
 +    * OCL
 +  * Challenges ​
 +  * Rules in UML
 +    * URML
 +    * PRR
 +  * BPMN & BR
 +  * HeKatE
 +    * ARD & XTT rep
 +    * metamodel
 +    * future work
 +
 +===== Introduction =====
 +  * abstract level of design
 +  * visual modeling -> this is not obvious! see  [[wp>​Literate_programming]]
 +  * programming paradigms -> different design paradigms
 +  * knowledge vs. software engineering
 +  * declarative vs. procedural, etc.
 +
 +===== UML Trajectory =====
 +
 +  * ++History of UML (1995-2009) | [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​File:​OO-historie.jpg | Graph of OO methods and notations history]]++
 +
 +  * **UML predecessors**:​ [[wp>​Object-modeling technique|OMT]] (by Rumbaugh), [[wp>​Booch_method|Booch Diagrams]] (by Booch), [[wp>​Object-oriented_software_engineering|OOSE]] (by Jacobson) ​
 +
 +^ Example of Booch class diagram ​ ^ Example of OMT object diagram ^
 +| {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​boochclass.gif|}} | {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​omt_object_diagram.png?​x400|}} |
 +
 +===== Unified Modeling Language (UML) Today =====
 +
 +  * general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering,​
 +  * 13 types of diagrams,
 +  * includes a set of graphical notation techniques to create abstract models of specific systems.
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​750px-uml_diagram.svg.png }}
 +
 +===== The Meta-Object Facility (MOF) =====
 +
 +  * model - representation of something, constructed and used for a particular purpose,
 +    * the meaning of the model is related to the situation and context wherein the model is used,
 +  * metamodel - a model that represents a modeling language,
 +  * MOF 
 +    * an OMG standard for model-driven engineering,​
 +    * designed as a four-layered architecture,​
 +    * UML & OCL are defined in MOF.
 +
 +===== MOF Layers =====
 +
 +^ Layers ^ Content ^ Example ^
 +|  {{http://​student.agh.edu.pl/​~kkluza/​xmi/​m3.png?​90x|M3}} ​ | metamodeling lang specification | Meta-Object Facility (MOF) |
 +|  {{http://​student.agh.edu.pl/​~kkluza/​xmi/​m2.png?​180x|M2}} ​ | model of metalanguage (language specification) | SQL, UML, XML specifications |
 +|  {{http://​student.agh.edu.pl/​~kkluza/​xmi/​m1.png?​270x|M1}} ​ | metadata, syntax & semantic desc | db schema, class model, DTD (def of XML document) |
 +| {{http://​student.agh.edu.pl/​~kkluza/​xmi/​m0.png?​350x|M0}} | data | data in DB, objects (instances),​ XML documents |
 +
 +===== The Object Constraint Language (OCL) =====
 +
 +  * language
 +    * declarative language for describing rules that apply to UML models,
 +    * a constraint language (OCL 1.4)
 +    * + general object query language (OCL 2.0)
 +  * part of OMG UML standard (may be used with any MOF),
 +  * makes a Meta-Object Facility model more precise,
 +  * example:\\ //The academic grade of a persons supervisor must be greater than the academic grade of the supervised person.//
 +<​code>​
 +context Person
 +   inv: self.supervisor.grade.value > self.grade.value
 +</​code>​
 +
 +
 +===== Selected challenges =====
 +  * UML/MOF -> lang + metalang level. universal :?:
 +  * if MOF is a universal metalang, what about EBNF
 +  * suitability for process modeling
 +  * suitability for knowledge modeling with rules
 +
 +===== Grammars vs MOF =====
 +
 +  * approaches in publications:​
 +    * grammar visualization (mapping)
 +    * metamodel optimalization (semi-automatic)
 +      * after auto generation
 +      * before auto generation
 +
 +  * ++ more: look for our research in wiki | https://​ai.ia.agh.edu.pl/​wiki/​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​ebnf_mof ++
 +
 +===== Grammar2MOF example=====
 +\\ 
 +<​code>​
 +program:​ (vardefinition | assignment)*
 +vardefinition:​ type IDENT !SEMICOLON
 +type: (INT | FLOAT)
 +assignment: IDENT !BECOMES expression !SEMICOLON
 +expression: (IDENT | NUMBER) (PLUS expression)?​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +| {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​generatedmof4grammar.jpg?​450x|}} | {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​high_quality_mof4grammar.jpg?​450x|}} |
 +
 +
 +===== a UML-Based Rule Modeling Language (URML) =====
 +  * developed by the REWERSE Working Group I1,
 +  * allows visual rule modeling based on UML class models,
 +  * supports the modeling of ++derivation rules|conditions->​conclusions++,​ ++production rules|conditions->​action++ and ++reaction rules|condition|event->​action|postcondition++,​
 +  * [[http://​rewerse.net/​I1/​oxygen.informatik.tu-cottbus.de/​rewerse-i1/​@q=node_2f10.htm|Strelka]] – a tool for making graphical URML models.
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​framgent_metamodelu_urlml.gif?​x610 | }}
 +
 +===== URML examples (DR) =====
 +
 +//A bachelor is a male that is not a husband.//
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​dr3_is_bachelor_0.png | }} 
 +
 +===== URML examples (PR) =====
 +
 +//If the reservation date of a rental is 5 days before the start date of a rental, then grant the rental a discount of 10.//
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​pr1_discount_rental.png |}}
 + 
 +
 +===== URML summary =====
 +  * http://​rewerse.net/​I1/​oxygen.informatik.tu-cottbus.de/​rewerse-i1/​@q=urml.htm
 +  * extends UML class diagrams,
 +  * single rules,
 +  * non-standard -> tool support ( //Strelka// - plugin for Fujaba),
 +  * rules serialized to R2ML,
 +  * in the future translations:​ R2ML <-> OCL and R2ML<​->​OWL/​SWRL ​
 +
 +===== The Production Rule Representation (PRR) [specification Beta 1] =====
 +
 +A //​production rule// is a statement of programming logic that specifies the execution of one or more actions in the case that its conditions are satisfied.
 +
 +  * PRR should improve the modeling of production rules, especially with respect to UML,
 +  * PRR should allow interoperability across different vendors providing production rule implementations. ​
 +
 +The production rule is typically represented as: 
 +  if [condition-list] then [action-list]
 +
 +
 +===== Example of PRR from specification Beta 1: =====
 +
 +  * **English text:** //If there is no CD item in the customer shopping cart then add a hyperlink to the CD page in the customer web page.//
 +  * **Proprietary rule language:​** ​
 +
 +  rule noCDItem {
 +   when { 
 +      ?customer1: Customer(); ​
 +      ?​shoppingCart1:​ ShoppingCart(customer == ?​customer1); ​
 +      not Item(type == ItemType.CD ; shoppingCart == ?​shoppingCart1);​
 +   } then { 
 +      modify ?customer1{ hyperlinkToCD = true; }
 +   ​} ​
 +  }
 +
 +  * **PRR OCL:​** ​
 +
 +  Rule noCDItem
 +  ruleVariable:​
 +   ?​customer:​ Customer = Customer->​any()
 +   ?​sCart:​ ShoppingCart = ShoppingCart->​any(c:​customer|c=?​customer)
 +   ?​cdItems:​ Set = ?​sCart.items->​select(e:​items|e.type=ItemType.CD)
 +  Condition:
 +   ?​cdItems.isEmpty()
 +  Action:
 +   ?​customer.hyperlinkToCD = true
 +
 +===== PRR Summary =====
 +  * no common agreement about the syntax of PRR,
 +  * different syntaxes, but common metamodel => translation between different syntaxes,
 +  * no defined PRR syntax => can be URML.
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​prrmetamodel.jpg?​x600 |}}
 +
 +===== The Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) =====
 +  * a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD),
 +  * is intuitive to business users and able to represent complex process semantics,
 +  * provides a mapping between the graphics of the notation to the underlying constructs of execution languages, particularly Business Process Execution Language.
 +
 +{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​bpmncoreelements.gif?​800x|}}
 +
 +===== Example of elements =====
 +\\
 +| {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​bpmnzdarzenia.gif?​400x|}} | | {{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​bpmnbramki.gif?​400x|}} |
 +
 +===== Example of usage BPMN =====
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​bpmn_example.png |}}
 +
 +===== BMPN summary =====
 +
 +  * notation dedicated for business org (semantic for business org),
 +  * only one diagram BPD, but many artifacts -> allows specify even complex processes,
 +  * formal notation -> simulation, optimalization & error detection,
 +  * automatic generation of ++BPEL4WS|(Business Process Execution Language for Web Services)++ code,
 +  * lack of security support for data structure, users hierarchy and access to data.
 +
 +===== Business rules =====
 +
 +  * describe the operations, definitions and constraints that apply to an organization in achieving its goals,
 +  * four categories of BR according to Business Rules Group: ​
 +    * definitions of business terms, ​
 +    * facts relating terms to each other, ​
 +    * constraints, ​
 +    * derivations.
 +
 +===== BR Example =====
 +
 +++Example of detailed business rule|from http://​www.agilemodeling.com/​artifacts/​businessRule.htm ++
 +
 +The description defines the rule exactly (text, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, OCL, ILOG rules language, BRML...). ​
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​brdetaild.jpg | }}
 +
 +===== BR representation =====
 +
 +  * UML model
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​br_uml_simple.png |}}
 +
 +  * OCL – a formal language used to describe expressions on models eg. constraint: ​
 +//The lower bound must be a non-negative integer literal.//
 +  lowerBound()->​notEmpty() implies lowerBound() >= 0
 +
 +  * many dedicated approaches like presented URML, PRR...
 +
 +===== UServ =====
 +
 +UServ Financial Services case study:
 +  * a benchmark case study from the Business Rules Forum,
 +  * provides a full service portfolio of financial products of Insurance Company,
 +  * contains many business rules and Business Process Models,
 +  * more: [[hekatedev:​hekate_case_userv]].
 +
 +===== UServ BR in URML =====
 +
 +Example for Eligibility Business Rules / Automobile Eligibility / Potential Theft Category eg.\\ 
 +  *//If all of the following are true, then the car's potential theft rating is moderate://
 +    * //​car'​s price is between $20,000 and $45,000,//
 +    * //car model is not on the list of "High Theft Probability Auto"​.//​
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​ae_ptc04.png |}}
 +
 +===== UServ Business Rules =====
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​userv1.jpg |}}
 +
 +===== UServ Business Process Model =====
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​userv2.jpg ​ |}}
 +
 +
 +
 +===== HeKatE =====
 +
 +{{ :​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​hekateprocess.png |}}
 +
 +===== Our goals/tasks =====
 +
 +  * ARD & XTT representation in UML,
 +  * ARD & XTT rules on UML diagrams presentation,​
 +  * integration of software & knowledge engineering methods.
 +
 +===== ARD =====
 +
 +Proposed model of ARD is based on component diagrams.
 +ARD contains diferent kind of UML dependencies such as:
 +  * <<​derive>>​ specifies a derivation relationship among model elements, where one of them can be computed from the another, ​
 +  * <<​refine>>​ specifies a refinement relationship among model elements at different levels of development;​ refinement can be used to model transformation from one to another phase of a sequential model development,​
 +  * <<​trace>>​ specifies a trace relationship among model elements represents the same concept in different models; it is mainly used for tracking changes across models.
 +
 +===== ARD example (1) =====
 +
 +Example of ARD diagram:​\\ ​
 +<​graphviz file="​hekate:​therm-a8.dot"></​graphviz>​
 +
 +UML model of that ARD diagram:​\\ ​
 +{{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​umlandard:​approach3_ard_8.png|:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​umlandard:​approach3_ard_8.png}}
 +
 +===== ARD example (2) =====
 +
 +Exemplary fragment of TPH diagram showing <<​trace>>​ dependecy in model:​\\ ​
 +{{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​umlandard:​trace_example.png|<<​trace>>​ dependecy in model of TPH}}
 +
 +===== TPH =====
 +\\ 
 +^ TPH diagram ​ ^ UML model of TPH diagram^
 +|{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​tph.png?​301x601|}} | {{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​umlandard:​approach3_tph_8.png?​418x601|:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​umlandard:​approach3_tph_8.png}} |
 +
 +===== XTT =====
 +
 +Proposed model of XTT is based on activity diagrams, which are related to flow diagrams and can illustrate the activities taking place in the system.
 +
 +  * Outline of XTT2UML translation algorithm (on the example of thermostat).
 +  * ++ UML2XTT translation is more complex.| see: [[student:​msc2009_umlrep:​xmi2xtt_spec|UML2XTT translation specification]] ++
 +  * ++ Proposed model and algorithm is developed also for more complex cases. | see: [[student:​msc2009_umlrep:​xtt_metamodel#​model|Model of table with many outputs]] ++
 +
 +===== Algorithm step 1 =====
 +
 +All input attributes become input parameters and output attribute becomes output parameter of an activity\\ ​
 +(for the sake of transparency the diagram can be divided into partitions with a swimlane).
 +
 +|{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​xtt_step1.jpg|}}|{{ :​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step1.png |:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step1.png}}|
 +
 +===== Algorithm step 2 =====
 +
 +For each attribute (activity parameter), if there is more than one unique value in the XTT add a decision node\\ ​
 +and for every unique value of attribute needs to be added: ​
 +  * the control flow with guard condition (with that unique value),
 +  * if the value occurs frequently, the flow is finished with a fork node with number of outputs equal to the number of times the value appears in XTT table.
 +
 +|{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​xtt_step2.jpg|}}|{{ :​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step2.png |:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step2.png}}|
 +
 +===== Algorithm step 3 =====
 +
 +For each rule (a row in XTT) draw a join node with the number of inputs equal to the number of input parameters and one output. For each join node:
 +  * inputs are connected using an adequate flow (in accordance with the values of attributes in the rule),
 +  * outputs are connected (using a flow) with the action having a value corresponding to the output attribute in the rule:
 +    * directly, if the value of attribute occurred in XTT only once,
 +    * otherwise through a merge node.
 +
 +|{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​xtt_step3.jpg|}}|{{ :​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step3.png |:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step3.png}}|
 +
 +===== Algorithm step 4 =====
 +
 +Outputs of all actions are merged in a merge node and a flow is lead to output parameter of activity.
 +
 +|{{:​student:​msc2009_umlrep:​explicite:​xtt_step4.jpg|}}|{{ :​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step4.png |:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​algorithm_step4.png}}|
 +
 +
 +===== XTT th table representation example =====
 +\\ 
 +
 +^ Activity diagram for XTT th table:^^
 +|{{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​xtt_th.png|:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​xtt_th.png}}|{{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​th_3.png?​600|:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​th_3.png}}|
 +
 +===== Thermostat Case =====
 +
 +Activity diagram for the whole XTT of thermostat: \\ 
 +{{:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​uml_activity_xtt_3.png?​800|:​pl:​miw:​miw08_umlandardxtt:​uml_activity_xtt_3.png}}
 +
 +===== Evaluation =====
 +
 +Proposed representation:​
 +  * shows both structure of dependecies in ARD and process of rules processing in XTT,
 +  * doesn'​t extend UML diagrams (like URML),
 +  * allows serialization to XMI.
 +
 +===== Future work =====
 +
 +  * metamodel,
 +  * XSTL translators,​
 +  * tools for verifing models with metamodel,
 +  * work in progress...
 +  ​
 +
 +===== Thank you =====
 +
 +\\ \\ \\ \\ 
 + ​Questions... ​
 +
  
hekate/visual_rules_process_modeling.txt · Last modified: 2019/06/27 15:49 (external edit)
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